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Scattering of alpha-particles by a thin gold foil suggests the presence of

  By GK Planet Team      
Q. Scattering of ɑ-particles by a thin gold foil suggests the presence of
  1. electron in an atom
  2. proton in an atom
  3. positively charged nucleus at the centre of an atom
  4. isotopes of gold
Answer: Positively charged nucleus at the centre of an atom

An alpha particle is a fast-moving packet containing two protons and two neutrons (a helium nucleus). Alpha particles carry a charge of +2 and strongly interact with matter. Produced during alpha decay, alpha particles can travel only a few inches through air and can be easily stopped with a sheet of paper.
Scattering of a-particles by a thin gold foil suggests the presence of positively charged nucleus at the centre of an atom.
Rutherford overturned Thomson's model in 1911 with his well-known gold foil experiment in which he demonstrated that the atom has a tiny and heavy nucleus. Rutherford designed an experiment to use the alpha particles emitted by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen world of atomic structure. If Thomson was correct, the beam would go straight through the gold foil. Most of the beams went through the foil, but a few were deflected.

Rutherford presented his own physical model for subatomic structure, as an interpretation for the unexpected experimental results. In it, the atom is made up of a central charge (this is the modern atomic nucleus, though Rutherford did not use the term "nucleus" in his paper) surrounded by a cloud of (presumably) orbiting electrons. In this May 1911 paper, Rutherford only committed himself to a small central region of very high positive or negative charge in the atom.
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