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Tuesday, 12 November 2019

Cell in G0 phase :

  By GK Planet Team       Tuesday, 12 November 2019
Q. Cell in G0 phase :
  1. exit the cell cycle
  2. enter the cell cycle
  3. suspend the cell cycle
  4. terminate the cell cycle
Answer: exit the cell cycle

The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into two main stages: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase (including mitosis and cytokinesis). During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, and undergoes DNA replication preparing it for cell division. During the mitotic phase, the replicated chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints.
The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: mitosis, in which the cell's nucleus divides, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase.

StatePhaseAbbreviationDescription
RestingGap 0G0A phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing.
InterphaseGap 1G1Cells increase in size in Gap 1. The G1 checkpoint control mechanism ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis.
SynthesisSDNA replication occurs during this phase.
Gap 2G2During the gap between DNA synthesis and mitosis, the cell will continue to grow. The G2 checkpoint control mechanism ensures that everything is ready to enter the M (mitosis) phase and divide.
Cell divisionMitosisMCell growth stops at this stage and cellular energy is focused on the orderly division into two daughter cells. A checkpoint in the middle of mitosis (Metaphase Checkpoint) ensures that the cell is ready to complete cell division.
After cell division, each of the daughter cells begins the interphase of a new cycle. Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell division.
Gap 0 (G0): There are times when a cell will leave the cycle and quit dividing. This may be a temporary resting period or more permanent. An example of the latter is a cell that has reached an end-stage of development and will no longer divide (e.g. neuron).
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