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Monday, 25 June 2018

Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

  By GK Planet Team       Monday, 25 June 2018
Q. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
  1. methane
  2. propyne
  3. nonane
  4. methyl
Answer: Propyne

Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
As defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are:
  1. Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. The formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons (i.e., alkanes) is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2(1-r), where r is the number of rings. Those with exactly one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property (like chlorination reaction to form chloroform). Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. As given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol.
  2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n (assuming non-cyclic structures). Those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2.
  3. Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring.

Hydrocarbons can be gases (e.g. methane and propane), liquids (e.g. hexane and benzene), waxes or low melting solids (e.g. paraffin wax and naphthalene) or polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene).

Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond are called alkynes.
Propyne (methylacetylene) is an alkyne with the chemical formula CH3C≡CH. It was a component of MAPP gas—along with its isomerpropadiene (allene), which was commonly used in gas welding. Unlike acetylene, propyne can be safely condensed.
Methylacetylene
Propyne3D.png
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