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Monday, 7 May 2018

Which of the following hormones can play a significant role in osteoporosis?

  By GK Planet Team       Monday, 7 May 2018
Q. Which of the following hormones can play a significant role in osteoporosis?
  1. Parathyroid hormone and Prolactin
  2. Aldosterone and Prolactin
  3. Estrogen and Parathyroid hormone
  4. Progesterone and Aldosterone
Answer: Estrogen and Parathyroid hormone

Estrogen

Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. There are three major endogenous estrogens in females that have estrogenic hormonal activity: estroneestradiol, and estriol. The estrane steroid estradiol is the most potent and prevalent of these.Estrogens are responsible for both the pubertal growth spurt, which causes an acceleration in linear growth, and epiphyseal closure, which limits height and limb length, in both females and males. In addition, estrogens are responsible for bone maturation and maintenance of bone mineral density throughout life. Due to hypoestrogenism, the risk of osteoporosis increases during menopause.

Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time. PTH is secreted in response to low blood serum calcium (Ca2+) levels. PTH indirectly stimulates osteoclast activity within bone marrow, in an effort to release more ionic calcium (Ca2+) into the blood to elevate serum calcium (Ca2+) levels. The bones act as a (metaphorical) "bank of calcium" from which the body can make "withdrawals" as needed to keep the amount of calcium in the blood at appropriate levels despite the ever-present challenges of metabolismstress, and nutritional variations. PTH is "a key that unlocks the bank vault" to remove the calcium. In consequence, PTH is vital to health, and health problems that yield too little or too much PTH (such as hypoparathyroidismhyperparathyroidism, or paraneoplastic syndromes) can wreak havoc in the form of bone diseasehypocalcaemia, and hypercalcemia.
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