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Tuesday, 8 May 2018

Hormones secreted by the placenta to maintain pregnancy are

  By GK Planet Team       Tuesday, 8 May 2018
Q. Hormones secreted by the placenta to maintain pregnancy are
  1. hCG, progcstogens, estrogens, glucocorticoids
  2. hCG. hPL, progcstogens, prolactin
  3. hCG, hPL, progestogens, estrogens
  4. hCG, hPL, estrogens, rclaxin, oxytocin
Answer: C
Hormones secreted by the placenta to maintain pregnancy are hCG, hPL, progestogens, estrogens.
The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy.
Placenta.svg
Placenta

The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection, and to produce hormones which support the pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing fetuses and removes waste products from the fetus's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the fetus's umbilical cord develops from the placenta. These organs connect the mother and the fetus. Placentas are a defining characteristic of placental mammals but are also found in marsupials and some non-mammals with varying levels of development. The homology of such structures in various viviparous organisms is debatable, and in invertebrates such as Arthropoda, is analogous at best.
  • The first hormone released by the placenta is called the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. This is responsible for stopping the process at the end of menses when the Corpus luteum ceases activity and atrophies. If hCG did not interrupt this process, it would lead to spontaneous abortion of the fetus. The corpus luteum also produces and releases progesterone and estrogen, and hCG stimulates it to increase the amount that it releases. hCG is the indicator of pregnancy that pregnancy tests look for. These tests will work when menses has not occurred or after implantation has happened on days seven to ten. hCG may also have an anti-antibody effect, protecting it from being rejected by the mother’s body. hCG also assists the male fetus by stimulating the testes to produce testosterone, which is the hormone needed to allow the sex organs of the male to grow.
  • Progesterone helps the embryo implant by assisting passage through the fallopian tubes. It also affects the fallopian tubes and the uterus by stimulating an increase in secretions necessary for fetal nutrition. Progesterone, like hCG, is necessary to prevent spontaneous abortion because it prevents contractions of the uterus, and is necessary for implantation.
  • Estrogen is a crucial hormone in the process of proliferation. This involves the enlargement of the breasts and uterus, allowing for growth of the fetus and production of milk. Estrogen is also responsible for increased blood supply towards the end of pregnancy through vasodilation. The levels of estrogen during pregnancy can increase so that they are thirty times what a non-pregnant woman mid-cycle estrogen level would be.
  • Human placental lactogen is a hormone used in pregnancy to develop fetal metabolism and general growth and development. Human placental lactogen works with Growth hormone to stimulate Insulin-like growth factor production and regulating intermediary metabolism. In the fetus, hPL acts on lactogenic receptors to modulate embryonic development, metabolism and stimulate the production of IGF, insulin, surfactant and adrenocortical hormones. hPL values increase with multiple pregnancies, intact molar pregnancy, diabetes and Rh incompatibility. They are decreased with toxemiachoriocarcinoma, and Placental insufficiency.
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