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Sunday, 28 January 2018

The Sultan who described himself as Sikandar-i-Sani (The Second Alexander) was—

  By GK Planet Team       Sunday, 28 January 2018
Q. The Sultan who described himself as Sikandar-i-Sani (The Second Alexander) was—

A. Balban
B. Sikandar Lodi
C. Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq
D. Allauddin Khalji

Answer: Allauddin Khalji

Alauddin Khalji

ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī (r. 1296–1316) was the second and most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin wished to become the second Alexander (Sikander Sani), and this title of his was mentioned on coins and public prayers.

He was a nephew and a son-in-law of his predecessor Jalaluddin. When Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi after deposing the Mamluks, Alauddin was given the position of Amir-i-Tuzuk (equivalent to the master of ceremonies). Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, and the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa. In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri and acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. After killing Jalaluddin, he consolidated his power in Delhi and subjugated Jalaluddin's sons in Multan.

Over the next few years, Alauddin successfully fended off the Mongol invasions of India, at Jaran-Manjur (1297-1298), Sivistan (1298), Kili (1299), Delhi (1303), and Amroha (1305). In 1306, his forces achieved a decisive victory against the Mongols near the Ravi riverbank, and in the subsequent years, his forces ransacked the Mongol territories in present-day Afghanistan. The military commanders that successfully led his army against the Mongols include Zafar Khan, Ulugh Khan, and his slave-general Malik Kafur.

Alauddin invaded, conquered and plundered the Hindu kingdoms of Gujarat (raided in 1299 and annexed in 1304), Ranthambore(1301), Chittoor (1303), Malwa (1305), Siwana (1308), and Jalore (1311). These victories ended several Hindu dynasties, including the Paramaras, the Vaghelas, the Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura and Jalore, the Rawal branch of the Guhilas, and possibly the Yajvapalas. His slave-general Malik Kafur led multiple campaigns to the south of the Vindhyas, obtaining a considerable amount of wealth from Devagiri (1308), Warangal (1310) and Dwarasamudra (1311). These victories forced the Yadava king Ramachandra, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra, and the Hoysala king Ballala III to become Alauddin's tributaries. Kafur also raided the Pandya kingdom(1311), obtaining a large number of treasures, elephants and horses.

During the last years of his life, Alauddin suffered from an illness and relied on Malik Kafur to handle the administration. After his death in 1316, Malik Kafur appointed Shihabuddin, son of Alauddin and his Hindu wife Jhatyapali, as a puppet monarch. However, his elder son Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah seized the power shortly after.

अलाउद्दीन खिलजी

अलाउद्दीन खिलजी (वास्तविक नाम अली गुरशास्प 1296-1316) दिल्ली सल्तनत के खिलजी वंश का दूसरा शासक था। उसका साम्राज्य अफगानिस्तान से लेकर उत्तर-मध्य भारत तक फैला था। इसके बाद इतना बड़ा भारतीय साम्राज्य अगले तीन सौ सालों तक कोई भी शासक स्थापित नहीं कर पाया था। मेवाड़ चित्तौड़ का युद्धक अभियान इतिहास की एक महत्वपूर्ण घटना है। ऐसा माना जाता है कि वो चित्तौड़ की रानी पद्मिनी की सुन्दरता पर मोहित था। इसका वर्णन मलिक मुहम्मद जायसी ने अपनी रचना पद्मावत में किया है।

उसके समय में उत्तर पूर्व से मंगोल आक्रमण भी हुए। उसने उसका भी डटकर सामना किया। अलाउद्दीन ख़िलजी के बचपन का नाम अली 'गुरशास्प' था। जलालुद्दीन खिलजी के तख्त पर बैठने के बाद उसे 'अमीर-ए-तुजुक' का पद मिला। मलिक छज्जू के विद्रोह को दबाने में महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाने के कारण जलालुद्दीन ने उसे कड़ा-मनिकपुर की सूबेदारी सौंप दी। भिलसा, चंदेरी एवं देवगिरि के सफल अभियानों से प्राप्त अपार धन ने उसकी स्थिति और मज़बूत कर दी। इस प्रकार उत्कर्ष पर पहुँचे अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने अपने चाचा जलालुद्दीन की हत्या धोखे से 22 अक्टूबर 1296 को खुद से गले मिलते समय अपने दो सैनिकों (मुहम्मद सलीम तथा इख़्तियारुद्दीन हूद) द्वारा करवा दी। इस प्रकार उसने अपने सगे चाचा जो उसे अपने औलाद की भांति प्रेम करता था के साथ विश्वासघात कर खुद को सुल्तान घोषित कर दिया और दिल्ली में स्थित बलबन के लालमहल में अपना राज्याभिषेक 22 अक्टूबर 1296 को सम्पन्न करवाया।

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