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Sunday, 21 January 2018

An example of political decentralisation is-

  By GK Planet Team       Sunday, 21 January 2018
Q. An example of political decentralisation is-

(A) Planning Commission
(B) Panchayati Raj Institution
(C) political Parties
(D) None of these

Answer: Panchayati Raj Institution

In India, the Panchayati Raj generally refers to the system introduced by the constitutional amendment in 1992, although it is based upon the traditional panchayat system of South Asia. The modern Panchayati Raj and its Gram Panchayats are not to be confused with the extra-constitutional Khap Panchayats (or Caste Panchayats) found in northern India. The Panchayati Raj system was formalized in 1992, following a study conducted by a number of Indian committees on various ways of implementing more decentralized administration.
Open Panchayat near Narsingarh, Madhya Pradesh, India

Mahatma Gandhi advocated Panchayati Raj as the foundation of India's political system, as a decentralized form of government in which each village would be responsible for its own affairs. The term for such a vision was Gram Swaraj ("village self-governance"). Instead, India developed a highly centralized form of government. However, this has been moderated by the delegation of several administrative functions to the local level, empowering elected gram panchayats. There are significant differences between the traditional Panchayati Raj system, that was envisioned by Gandhi, and the system formalized in India in 1992.

In India, the Panchayati Raj now functions as a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the basic units of local administration. The system has three levels: Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad(district level). It was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.

Various committees on Panchayati Raj:
  • Balwant Rai Mehta: established 1957
  • V.T. Krishnammachari: 1960
  • Takhatmal Jain Study Group: 1966
  • Ashok Mehta Committee: 1978
  • G.V.K. Rao Committee: 1985
  • Dr. L.M. Singhvi Committee: 1986
  • P. K. Thoongan committee: 1988

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