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Why Bengal was partitioned in 1905?

The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গভঙ্গ) was announced in July 1905, by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal's business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were outraged at what they recognised as a "divide and rule" policy, where the colonisers turned the native population against itself in order to rule, even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency. The partition animated the Hindus and led the Muslims to form their own national organisation on communal lines. Bengal was reunited in 1911, in an effort to both appease the Bengali sentiment and have easier administration.

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